西安交通大学信息机电研究所西安交通大学模具与先进成形技术研究所技术研究特色西安交通大学工业三维摄影测量技术发展路线三维全场变形技术概述面向复杂机械和新型材料运行工况下或现场使用单位简介研究生招生XTDICXTDVCXTRTXTMicroXTDIC 3D控制箱数字散斑全场应变XTDP三维光学测量坐标变换XTDCAL工业近景摄影测量XTSD静态变形XTDA大型飞机风洞大视场高速运动物体动态变形和运动轨迹XTSOXTOMXTOM INSPECTOR三维扫描仪XTFLC板料热成形三维全场应变检测试验机XTSM板料和管材胀形成形试验的三维全场变形检测系统板料成形膜结构双轴双向拉伸试验机双轴四缸电液伺服静态、动态、疲劳试验机双向对称微拉伸试验机(用于光学和电子显微镜)TOMS-汽车模具三维光学快速检测系统专用系统核心技术:复杂工况三维全场动态变形检测技术关键技术产品应用领域系列产品概述三维全尺寸快速检测解决方案:大型复杂工件产品的反求和快速质量检测其他光学体式显微镜测量板料液压胀形试验的三维全场变形检测数据动画演示泡沫铝物体内部变形测量实验板料成形极限FLC快速测定(3D-DIC)飞机风洞模型三维全场应变检测(数字图像相关法)一种基于DIC技术识别焊缝材料参数的新方法高温三维全场应变测量(3000摄氏度以内)高速拉伸变形技术发展路线高速冲击振动模态分析实验---数字散斑应用圆棒试件疲劳实验汽车车桥的静态变形和数字散斑三维全场应变实验木材压缩和弯曲性能试验----全场应变分析型号和配置------XTDIC数字散斑应变测量分析一般测量步骤 XTDIC数字散斑系统计算步骤-----XTDIC数字散斑系统显示和编辑计算结果----XTDIC散斑系统输出功能------XTDIC数字散斑系统大幅面三维全场应变测量视频----XTDIC三维数字散斑动态应变测量分析系统沙土全场变形实验-相似材料钛合金试件压缩变形三维数字散斑试验拉伸试验三维全场应变测量总体功能--XTDIC三维数字散斑动态应变测量分析系统主要功能---XTDIC三维数字散斑动态应变测量分析系统变形分析功能--XTDIC三维数字散斑动态应变测量分析分析曲线功能---XTDIC三维数字散斑动态应变测量报表功能---XTDIC三维数字散斑动态应变测量分析系统截线分析---XTDIC三维数字散斑动态应变测量分析系统等势线分析--XTDIC三维数字散斑动态应变测量分析XTDIC数字散斑系统与电子引申计比对试验XTDIC三维数字散斑动态应变测量分析系统三维全场应变测量分析重型卡车车架和车门全方位静态变形和全场应变检测发动机活塞缸体受力三维静态变形实验相似材料模型变形实验-标志点变形和全场变形两种方法复合材料节点试验---基于XTSD的三维静态变形测量大型结构件大变形三维摄影测量相似材料模型实验-光学三维变形测量变形分析应用大尺寸大变形静态测量某汽车覆盖件冲压全场应变检测步骤和流程汽车覆盖件(长到6米)板料冲压全场应变三维检测板料成形极限FLC试验板料剪切实验装置大型汽车模具制件的实际板料成形三维全场应变检测数字图像相关法(散斑应变)在板料力学性能测试中的应用板料成形网格应变测量实验快速使用说明---XTSM板料成形应变测量分析系统评估模式说明-----XTSM板料成形分析计算模式-XTSM板料成形网格应变分析系统三维点云处理---XTSM板料成形网格应变分析系统网格模式---XTSM板料成形网格应变分析系统XTSM板料成形应变测量分析系统板料成形网格变形分析楼房振动变形实验飞机风洞模型静态变形测量飞机结构件运动特性的动态视觉测量系统动态变形和运动轨迹汽车模具快速质量检测和比对分析路面构造三维扫描及三维坐标获取TOMS汽车模具摄影测量系统实现汽车模具实型数字化检测汽车模具三维光学系统应用于汽车覆盖件回弹的计算三维检测应用比对分析和质量检测焊接过程高温三维全场应变实时检测焊接失稳变形光学非接触三维检测的研究三维全场变形应变系统在焊接学科的研究和应用焊接过程三维全场应变检测实验采用XTSD静态变形系统的焊接过程三维变形检测实验采用XTOM面扫描系统进行焊接变形实验焊接变形试验--光学三维动态变形测量大尺寸无缝焊接管道三维测量和变形分析焊接变形和应变分析船用螺旋桨叶片检测大型飞机三维光学快速测量建模关键技术研究大型水轮机叶片、汽轮机叶片、船舶螺旋桨的快速检测手机零部件三维测量测量实例三维光学测量的应用领域逆向设计应用客车逆向设计快速建模案例轿车、客车、卡车、火车等车辆的组装后产品质量检测大型挖掘机铲斗模型的建模和测量测量实例 测量系统软件界面三维扫描测量实例 逆向和检测汽车模具检测案例 大型泡沫和铸件快速检测其他测量案例行业应用复杂工况三维全场动态变形 检测技术三维全场变形技术概述应变(strain)工业摄影测量光束平差(捆绑调整)自标定方法数字图像相关法(Digital Image Correlatiom,DIC)工业数字近景摄影测量与机器视觉的关系机器视觉(Machine Vision)工业数字近景摄影测量Photogrametry国内外DIC相关研究链接国内外三维检测Strain Measurement by Digital Image Correlation数字散斑全场应变分析工业近景摄影测量静态大尺寸大变形动态变形和运动轨迹三维扫描和建模板料成形网格变形分析焊接变形和应变分析比对分析和质量检测点云处理和三角化相机标定其他综述
国内外三维检测

3D Scanners, Digitizers, and Software for making 3D Models and 3D Measurements

Simple 3D is a site about technologies (3d scanners, digitizers) used to create 3D models, measure 3D dimensions, and track objects in 3D spaces.

Over the past few years a number of 3D Scanner / measurement / tracking devices and techniques have been developed.

3D Models can be used in a large range of exciting applications areas: Animation, Archaeology, Architecture, Dentistry,Education, Fashion and Textiles, FootWear, Forensics, Games, Industrial Design, Manufacturing, Medical, Movies,Multimedia, Museums, As-built Plants Rapid Prototyping, Reverse Engineering,Sculpture,Toys, Mold Making, and Web Design.

Hopefully these pages will help you determine the best products for your applications (Frequently Asked Questions)

Table of Contents:

Acoustic Position Trackers Books Close Range Photogrammetry CNC Milling Machines and 3D Printers Coordinate Measurement Machines Dense Stereo Matching Homemade Scanners Holography Industry Magazines Laser Radar Scanners Laser Scanners Laser Trackers Magnetic Position Trackers Measurement Service Companies Optical Fiber Optical Position Trackers Professional Organizations Profilers Structured Light Software Time of Flight Laser Scanners Total Stations and Theodolites Touch Probes

Laser Scanners

· 3D Digital (now own rights to RealScan 3D... which was previously owned by Intel, and before that Lockheed Martin). The Model 100 portable scanner has a USB interface for easy interfacing but no color texture. The Model 200 has color texture.

· 3D Scanner has two different products. ModelMaker is a hand-held line scanner that fits on the end of an articulated arm (such as Faro). It comes in several different sensor configurations. The user can choose where to spend more time gathering dense data. The weight of the head and the rigidness of the articulated arm can make scanning a bit tiring. Replica/Reversa is a complete Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) Machine.

· 3Shape 3D scanners for hearing aid and footwear applications

· DataPixel has sensors for CMMs, robot based inspection, and manufacturing in-line inspection.

· Axila G-scan is an integrated articulated arm and laser line scanner.

· Canadian National Research Council

· C-Map Systems LazrLyne projects a bright red vertical stripe into the video camera field of view. This allows an operator to measure areas, distances, and angles on the screen. The device is typically used for remote controlled crawlers, undersea ROV's, borescopes, and video microscopes.

· Cyberware pioneered laser and video-based scanning technology. Their head and body scanners have been heavily used in the movie industry. The have scanners to address a full range of applications and they build custom scanners for special applications. The scanners color texture inaddition to geometry data.

· DCS incubator project uses projection of multiple laser lines to create 3D profiles.

· Diff Scan handheld 3D scanner uses a laser, camera, and diffraction to obtain range information

· Digibotics has several different size models that use a single laser dot to scan an entire object. The systems automatically scan an entire object in an intelligent fashion. Because of the order it scans the object, the point cloud is very easy to convert to a NURB model usings tools like Surfacer. The scanning is some what slow, but accurate.

· Hamar laser alignment systems

· Hymarc Hyscan 45C laser digitizer is designed to fit to any Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM), Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) Machine, or other translation device.

· Industrial Technology Research Institute has a 4-axis scanner, a portable 3D scanner, and a body scanner.

· 4DI (bought by Brooks Automation) system projects multiple laser lines to scan an object. It has two video cameras to calculate the 3D points and one camera to keep track of the multiple lines.

· INO has a line of high speed 3D laser profiling sensors

· IVP high speed 3D machine vision sensor calculates range information directly in the camera (10,000 profiles / sec). Combined with the Ranger software, it makes creating 3D profiling applications easy.

· Kreon3D has two different models. The laser line is projected from the center of the sensor. Two cameras are used on either side of the line projector. This allows data capture even if one of the cameras is obscured.

· Laser Design makes both portable and CMM based scanners for large and small applications.

· LMI Technologies Inc. has single point, multi-point, single-line and multi-line laser sensors

· Mensi offers two different models, one for long distances (2.5 - 25 Meters), and one for shorter distances (0.8 - 10 meters).

· Metris has several CMM non-contact scanners.

· Metron Systems MSG2 3D Scanning System is for reverse engineering, rapid prototyping, first article inspection, quality and process control or simply scanning services

· Konica Minolta Vivid (USA) (Europe) (Japan) has three models (Vivid 330, 700, 900) to provide different accuracies and working volumes. These systems operate like a conventional camera and are portable, fast, and reliable. The systems product color texture and geometry data.

· Nagoya Institute of Technology Handy 3-D Cam

· Nextec has the Wiz laser point probe that can be mounted on a CMM or they have the Hawk integrated scanning system

· New Features Measurement sells the M2D line of laser line scanner

· NextEngine Desktop 3D Scanner uses multi-stripe laser triangulation and sells for around $2500.

· OGIScanner laser line scanner for measuring rough diamonds for use in diamond planning and cutting.

· Origin Technology captures a two-dimensional digital profile of a surface.

· Perceptron provides laser line scanner and software for integrating with articulated arms

· Polhemus has come out with a new model of the FastScan handheld laser scanner. The FastScan Cobra is a single camera laser line scanner. It is much lighter and easier to handle than the original FastScan. The user "paints" the object of interest. The point cloud is displayed on the screen as the scan is being done. It uses a built-in magnetic tracker to obtain the position and orientation of the scanner. This puts the scanned points in the same coordinate system. The overlapping scans are processed into a single surface model. Optional software provides automatic hole filling and generates water tight meshes. The list price is around $20K and the accuracy is around 0.5mm. This product is not suited for working around metal because of the tracker. The scanner and FastRBF software are developed by Applied Research Associates NZ Ltd. and FarField Technology

· Roland Model LPX-250 Laser Scanner is a $10K laser dot scanner that has rotation and linear stages. The operating volume is 10" diameter, 16" height. The scanning resolution can be as small as 0.008". The unit is very nicely package, but large complex parts can take quite a bit of time to scan.

· Scantech produces 3D laser scanners and CAD/CAM for efficient and fast copy milling. They have a portable scanner and stationary 3D laser scanners for mounting on any CNC-controlled milling machine or CNC-turning lathe.

· ScanWorks from Perceptron can be mounted on an articulated arm

· Shapegrabber has tabletop, portable, and gantry scanning platforms.

· Steinbichler Comet T-scan hand-held laser scanner for 3D-digitizing of freeform surfaces

· Scantech portable or CNC mounted scanner for stone, wood, and metal industry

· Surphaser 3D Laser Scanner ($30k) scans 200,000/sec with an operating volume of 6' x 6' x 6' with 0.05mm RMS accuracy

· Wolf & Beck Optical Scanning sensors for CMMs

· Z+F UK Ltd LARA scanners and Light Form Modeller Software

Structured Light Scanners

· 3D Metrics

· 3D Shape GmbH

· BodySkanner models commercial patterns to a person's measurements within 1/16".

· Breuckmann Make a variety of scanners

· C 3D Imaging

· CalTech 3D photography

· Capture3D

· ComfORTAC acquires 360 degree trunk and limbs with +/- 1mm accuracy.

· Dimensional Photonics is back (new incarnation?). The have a nicely packaged accordian fringe system. Minolta now sells their system for high-end applications. The technology promises to be more tolerant of lighting and shinely parts.

· EOIS makes the mini-moire non-contact probe for portable measurement arms. They also have 'The Handy' handheld digitizer that uses a digital camera for data capture and storage. EOIS technology sold to Opton Co Ltd of Japan in 2001.

· Eyetronics sells the ShapeCam and the SnapeSnatcher Suite Software. ShapeCam consists of a digital camera and a specially designed flash device mounted on a lightweight frame. Photos captured with the portable ShapeCam are processed and assembled in 3D with the SnapeSnatcher Suite. The suite handles alignment and stitching of scans, polygon reduction, texturemapping, and surface extrusion.

· Genextech Rainbow

· GOM Atos working volume is 100 x 80 x 80 mm up to 350 x 280 x 280 mm, scan time is 8 seconds.

· Inspeck 3D Capturor ($13K) can be used alone or combined into large object scanners

· Intelligent Quality Systems moire system

· Minolta 3D1500 Camera

· MonTech

· Nub3D

· Opton Moire System

· RSI Digiscan 2000 use a combination of a standard LCD projector, video camera, and software to objects

· Solutionix

· Steinbichler Comet

· Vitronic

· VXTechnologies (formerly VX Optronics) StarCam Uses a pair of cameras to triangulate the dot pattern projected by an inexpensive LCD projector. The system is available with an internal optical reference to help with thermal calibration issues.

· Wicks and Wilson Triform have several different body scanners (full body, torso, head).Structured Light Scanners

· 3D Metrics

· 3D Shape GmbH

· BodySkanner models commercial patterns to a person's measurements within 1/16".

· Breuckmann Make a variety of scanners

· C 3D Imaging

· CalTech 3D photography

· Capture3D

· ComfORTAC acquires 360 degree trunk and limbs with +/- 1mm accuracy.

· Dimensional Photonics is back (new incarnation?). The have a nicely packaged accordian fringe system. Minolta now sells their system for high-end applications. The technology promises to be more tolerant of lighting and shinely parts.

· EOIS makes the mini-moire non-contact probe for portable measurement arms. They also have 'The Handy' handheld digitizer that uses a digital camera for data capture and storage. EOIS technology sold to Opton Co Ltd of Japan in 2001.

· Eyetronics sells the ShapeCam and the SnapeSnatcher Suite Software. ShapeCam consists of a digital camera and a specially designed flash device mounted on a lightweight frame. Photos captured with the portable ShapeCam are processed and assembled in 3D with the SnapeSnatcher Suite. The suite handles alignment and stitching of scans, polygon reduction, texturemapping, and surface extrusion.

· Genextech Rainbow

· GOM Atos working volume is 100 x 80 x 80 mm up to 350 x 280 x 280 mm, scan time is 8 seconds.

· Inspeck 3D Capturor ($13K) can be used alone or combined into large object scanners

· Intelligent Quality Systems moire system

· Minolta 3D1500 Camera

· MonTech

· Nub3D

· Opton Moire System

· RSI Digiscan 2000 use a combination of a standard LCD projector, video camera, and software to objects

· Solutionix

· Steinbichler Comet

· Vitronic

· VXTechnologies (formerly VX Optronics) StarCam Uses a pair of cameras to triangulate the dot pattern projected by an inexpensive LCD projector. The system is available with an internal optical reference to help with thermal calibration issues.

· Wicks and Wilson Triform have several different body scanners (full body, torso, head).

Holography

· Optimet point probe uses Conoscopic Holography

· Coherix uses a tunable laser with multiple wavelengths and phase shifting to make measurements in a 12x12x16" working volume. The measurement time is 2-3 minutes. Works well on flat reflective surfaces. Applications have primarily been in the automotive (brake pads, pumps, engine blocks) and semiconductor areas (silicon wafers). Systems are high-end ($200K)

Software

· 3D Reshaper

· Cortona VRML plugin can be used to view VRML files in your web browser

· CosmoPlayer VRML plugin can be used to view VRML files in your web browser

· Cyberware CySlice

· Delcam provides a free translator that converts Unigraphics, SolidWorks, Pro/E 2000i, Parasolid and CATIA files to IGES.

· Deskproto Converts STL files into machining paths for CNC machines

· Easy3DScan is a package for automating the scan process using Minolta VIVID scanners and a turntable

· FarField Technology provides advanced techniques for modeling scattered 2D and 3D data.

· Imageware Surfacer allows you to manipulate point clouds and convert them into useful objects such as points, lines, planes

· Innovmetric Polyworks accepts scan data from most scanner manufacturers and aligns them into one model. It is very good at handling the extremely large datasets. It processes both the points and the texture. The point clouds and models can be exported or compared against CAD models.

· MatchGraph integrates 3d scan data processing technology in one package. It handles the creation and modification of triangulated meshes, NURB curves, and surfaces with inspection and analysis

· MayaMetrix Real-time inspection and tool building help Link Digital CAD Models to Manufacturing

· Metris provides data preparation, registration, comparison, and reporting software for dimensional inspection.

· Okino Polytrans does a great job of converting 3D models between formats.

· Paraform surface reconstruction software

· PRISM 3D Software software for managing, sharing, and extracting information from as-built laser scan point clouds.

· Raindrop Geomagic has a product that converts point clouds into polygonal and NURB models. The Qualify product aligns point cloud data to CAD models and inspects it.

· RapidForm can create parametric models from point clouds. They also have software for inspecting products against their CAD definitions.

· Rhino3D Nurb modeling for Windows.

· RevWorks

· SpatialAnalyzer SpatialAnalyzer can simultaneously acquire data from any combination of metrology instruments - Theodolites, Total Station Theodolites, Laser Trackers, Laser Scanner, Coordinate Measurement Machines.

· UZR 3D Professional creates a 3D model from a series of object images.

· Visualization Toolkit (VTK) is an open source, freely available software system for 3D computer graphics, image processing, and visualization.

· Verisurf

Laser Radar Scanners

· Metricvision technology is based on Frequency Modulated Coherent Laser Radar, which gives it great precision (repeatability is in the sub-10 micron range at over 10m). Since it is a focused system is has good spatial resolution ( absolute precision in the range of 100 microns at 10 meters). The technology is very good at capturing reflective surfaces and can be used with mirrors to reduce line-of-sight problems.

Time-of-flight Laser Scanners

· 3rdTech DeltaSphere 3000 Laser 3D Scene Digitizer

· Cyra Cyrax 2500 scanner is suited for capturing large "as-built" structures and turning them into CAD representations. They have been used in applications from retrofitting power plants to digitizing movie sets. The accuracy is +/-6mm at 1.5m to 50m 1 sigma. The operating volume is approximately 20,000M^3. Approximate system pricing is $150K.

· Quantapoint measures 125,000 points per second and covers a 70 degree by 360 degree field of view

· Riegl Laser Measurement Systems for 3D imaging of buildings and structures

Laser Trackers

· Automated Precision sells the Laser Tracker II system which is a lightweight, precise, compact and portable CMM tool designed for industrial applications.

· Faro (formerly SMX) produces a portable CMM system that precisely measure objects in the 0-100' range.

· Leica Geosystems sells a range of industrial measurements systems including laser trackers.


Touch Probes

· Axila claims to have invented the first six-axis portable CMM in 1986. The ORBITAL is their eight-axis arm.

· Faro Three families of digitizers (sterling, silver, and gold). Working volumes from 4-12', accuracies of 0.001" to 0.007" 2 sigma.

· Garda Inspector

· Immersion Microscribe Several different models with varying working volumes (50" - 66" sphere) and accuracy (0.009 - 0.015").

· Roland makes several small volume piezo scanners. The low price makes them great for scanning coins, jewelry, and other small parts.

· Romer Six axis articulation, 6 - 12' diameter measuring, accuracy to +/- 0.008"

· ZettMess Portable 6 Axes Measuring System

Optical Position Trackers

· 3rdTech HiBall-3100 Based on the UNC Wide-Area Tracking Research Project

· ArcSecond sells what they call an indoor GPS system. The system consist of 2-4 transmitters that are similar to rotating construction laser levels. Receivers are connected to wireless PDAs and display x,y,z location. The interesting part about this product is that you can many independent receivers. The systems are fairly accurate over a large working volume.

· Image Guided Technologies

· Krypton is a precalibrated mobile metrology system. There are no mechanical arms and the setup is fast and straight forward.

· Northern Digital makes the Polaris and Optotrak system. They track active and passive markers. ND focuses on the medical areas, and is common in image guided surgery.

· PhoeniX Technologies Real-Time 3D Motion Capture for research, biomechanics, VR, and gaming.

Magnetic Position Trackers

· Ascension Technology

· Polhemus developed the technology and sells the FasTrak and Liberty systems.

· Mednetix AG

· Northern Digital has a new Aurora system that uses small sensors. It has a measurement volume approximately 500mm x 500mm x500mm. The 1 sigma accuracies are 1-3mm and 1-2 degrees orientation. This product will help ND in the image guide surgery arena where optical systems can have their views blocked.


Acoustic Position Trackers

· GTCO CalComp Freepoint 3D Sonic" Several models listed, one with a large 16 x 8 x 8 ft working volume with a 0.004" resolution.

· Pegasus Technologies Ltd


Optical Fiber

· Measurand


Dense Stereo Matching

· Geometrix FaceVision uses multiple low-cost digital cameras to create textured face models from ear to ear.


Profilers

· CamSys ShadowBox has 16" diameter, 16" high cylindrical working volume. Two models with different accuracy. Scan times range from 15 - 120 seconds.

· Solarius Development LaserScan is a 3D profilometer for laser measurement and analysis of surfaces

Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMMs)

· CMMtalk On-line Community for CMM Professionals

· Brown & Sharpe

· LK Metrology

· Mahr Federal Inc.

· Mitutoyo

· Renishaw

· Starrett

· Werth America Inc.

· Zeiss

Close-Range Photogrammetry

· Apollo Photo3D creates 3D textured models from photographs

· Australis is from the University of Melbourne. Professor Clive Fraser has written many papers about using photogrammetry on industrial applications.

· DPA-Pro is from AICON 3D Systems. The software has a heritage from the older Rollei DPA-WIN software. Coded targets and automatic camera calibration greatly improve your productivity.

· Brunson Instrument Company sells Invar components and accessories useful for creating photogrammetry scale bars.

· Cognitens 3D vision measurement systems is targeted at the automotive and the aerospace applications.

· GSI Inca2 camera and V-Stars are top-of-the-line cameras and software. They are geared towards automatically measuring coded, circular retro-reflective targets, and scale bars. This is a true metric camera, not just a professional grade digital camera.

· Hubbs Machine and Manufacturing produce photogrammetry targets and tooling.

· Imetric produces very high resolution cameras (6 and 28 Megapixel). Their software can read coded targets and can integrate their structured light sensor.

· Kodak sells several professional digital cameras that are good for medium to high accuracy photogrammetry projects. The cameras are available in monochrome versions which are typically better for photogrammetry. The current model is the DCS 760M, past models have been the DCS 420M and DCS 660M.

· Leica Geosystems also sells the V-Stars videogrammetry system produced by GSI.

· LensDoc is a Photoshop plugin to correct lens distortion

· Metronor

· Microsoft Live Labs Photosynth finds autocorrespondences and camera positions from a set of images

· Photometrix has the Australis suite for automated close-range phototgrammetric measurements and iWitness system for accident reconstruction and forensic photogrammetry.

· PhotoModeler is a great package for calibrating cameras, making measurements from photos, and creating 3D models from photos. It has a lot of functionality for the price (<$1000).

· Renoir for 3D reconstruction from photos

· ShapeQuest ShapeCapture works with projected targets

· SPG Data 3D uses a projected pattern and multiple cameras to inspect large objects.

· TCTI (3DMD) uses random light patterns with up to 144 synchronized digital cameras to geometry and texture of human subjects

· TriTop is a photogrammetry package from Capture3D. It is usually sold and integrated with the ATOS structured light sensor that they sell. It allows the point cloud scans to be automatically placed using coded and uncoded retroreflective targets.

· Visual Interface

· Vexcel FotoG Automatic edge detection for targeting helps this software create as-built models of plants.

· W.N.B.C. in L.A. produces retroreflective targets for use in photogrammetry applications.


Total Stations / Theodolites

· Leica Geosystems sells a range of industrial measurement systems include theodolites and total stations

· Sokkia

CNC Milling Machines and 3D Printers

· 3D Systems has SLA Stereolithography systems and solid imaging printers

· Fourth-axis makes rotary micromachines attachments for the Roland CNC machines. It converts them into rotary mills for jewelry applications

· Minitech

· MultiCam makes CNC routers, laser cutters and plasma cutters

· Roland CNC Milling Machines

· Zcorp has two different model 3D printers. The Z406 ($67.5K) uses a plaster-based powder. The Z400 ($49K) uses a starch-based powder. The loose powder acts as a supporting structure which can be removed and reused.


Professional Organizations

· ACM SIGGRAPH

· Coordinate Measurement Systems Committee

· Metrology Automation Association

The Imaging & Geospatial Information Society


Measurement Service Companies

· DeChant Consulting Services sells the iWitness accident reconstruction software. They provide training and consulting services.

· Conservation Technologies Provides laser cleaning and scanning technology combined with traditional conversation skills to provide a range of conservation services

· Direct Dimensions provides 3D scanning, reverse engineering and inspection services utilizing a variety of tools from portable CMM's to laser scanners and laser trackers

· Solarius Development rent their equipment

· Arius3D

· 3Space

· Imtec

· Brunson

· Automated Precision

· ATT Metrology

· Archaeoptics Specialize in high-accuracy, low-cost 3D laser scanning most commonly in the fields of heritage management and archaeology.

· Streamline Automation

· 3Shape Consulting and Services

· 3DScanCo sell Konica Minolta range cameras, Faro equipment, and several software packages (Geomagic, rapidform, and Metris). They provide 3D scanning , reverse engineering, and quality inspection services.

· QPlus CMM Dimensional Measurement, Reverse Engineering, First Article Inspection 2D/3D Digitizing

Homemade Scanners

· Building a Homemade Laser Line Scanner By Ethan Gold

· Home-Brew 3-D Photography by Jay Kubicky

· Development of a Four-Head Color Laser Range Scanner

· Public domain 3-dimensional data acquisition design and software by Laurence G. Hassebrook

· 3D Touch Probe Scanner by Roger Mueller

· 3D laser scanner by Roger Mueller uses a inexpensive quickcam pro 4000, a single laser line, and a turn table. Nice description of method, hardware, and software.


Industry Magazines

· Quality Online Magazine

· VisionSystems Design

· Advanced Imaging

· Photonics Spectra

· Time-Compression Technologies


Books

Computer Graphics and Visualization

· The Visualization Toolkit : An Object-Oriented Approach to 3-D Graphics by William Schroeder, et al

· The Visualization Toolkit User's Guide: May 2001 by William J. Schroeder, et al

· Graphics Gems III David Kirk

· Encyclopedia of Graphics File Formats with CDROM James D. Murray, William vanRyper, Deborah Russell

· 3D Graphics File Formats: A Programmer's Reference Keith Rule, Keith Ruler


Photogrammetry

· Close Range Photogrammetry and Machine Vision Edited by K.B. Atkinson, Department of Geomatic Engineering, University College London

· 3D Modeling from Photos : Build 3d Models Fast Using Desktop Photogrammetry by Lyn Merritt

· Elements of Photogrammetry(with Applications in GIS) by Paul R. Wolf, Bon A. Dewitt

· Introduction to Modern Photogrammetry by Edward M. Mikhail, James S. Bethel, J. Chris McGlone, Chris McGlone

· Digital Photogrammetry by Michel Kasser and Yves Egels


Computer Vision

· Computer Vision : Three-Dimensional Data from Images by Reinhard Klette, Karsten Schluns, Andreas Koschan This is a great practical book for people that want to learn about creating 3D data from images.

· Computer Vision: A Modern Approach by David Forsyth, Jean Ponce

· Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision by Richard Hartley, Andrew Zisserman

· Introductory Techniques for 3-D Computer Vision by Emanuele Trucco, Alessandro Verri Good classroom book for introduction to computer vision.

· The Geometry of Multiple Images: The Laws That Govern the Formation of Multiple Images of a Scene and Some of Their Applications by Olivier Faugeras, Quang-Tuan Luong, T. Papadopoulo

· 3D Structures from Images - Smile 2000

· Computer Vision by Linda G. Shapiro, George C. Stockman, George Stockman

· Computer Vision and Fuzzy Neural Systems (With CD-ROM) by Arun D. Kulkarni

· Active Contours : The Application of Techniques from Graphics, Vision, Control Theory and Statistics to Visual Tracking of Shapes in Motion by Andrew Blake, Michael Isard

· Handbook of Computer Vision Algorithms in Image Algebra by Gerhard X. Ritter, Joseph N. Wilson

· Calibration and 3D Reconstruction for Multicamera Marker Based Motion Measurement by J.C. Sabel


Image Processing

· Computer Vision and Image Processing: A Practical Approach Using CVIPTools (BK/CD-ROM) by Scott E. Umbaugh

· The Image Processing Handbook, Third Edition by John C. Russ

· Algorithms for Image Processing and Computer Vision by James R. Parker

· Practical Algorithms for Image Analysis: Descriptions, Examples, and Code by Michael Seul, Lawrence O'Gorman, Michael J. Sammon

· Feature Extraction in Computer Vision and Image Processing by Mark S. Nixon, Alberto Aguado

· Contemporary Optical Image Processing With Matlab by Ting-Chung Poon, Partha P. Banerjee

· 3-D Image Processing Algorithms by I. Pitas, Nikos Nikolaidis

Practical Algorithms for Image Analysis: Descriptions, Examples, and Code by Michael Seul, Lawrence O'Gorman, Michael J. Sammon

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